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Bush on Faith-Based Plans. Allard, Scott W. Google Scholar. Black, Amy E. Koopman, and David K. Bowler, Kate. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Google Scholar. Brodie, Janine.

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Engaged Spirituality and Egalitarianism in US Social Welfare Policy

Brown, Wendy. Bush, George W. Carlson-Thies, Stanley W. Cazenave, Noel A. Chaves, Mark. Clemens, Elisabeth S. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cnaan, Ram A. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. DeParle, Jason. New York: Penguin. Dilulio Jr. Greenstein, ed. Bush Presidency: An Early Assessment. Frumkin, Peter, and Alice Andre-Clark. Goode, Judith.

Media, Spiritualities and Social Change

Hackworth, Jason R. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Harper, Nile. Eugene, OR: Wm. Eerdmans Publishing.

Hasenfeld, Yeheskel, and Eve E. Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Hefferan, Tara, and Tim Fogarty.

Hill, Peter. Pargament, Ralph W. Hood, Jr. McCullough, James P. Swyers, David B. Larson, and Brian J. King Jr. Kuo, David. New York: Simon and Schuster. Larner, Wendy. Marsh, Charles. Sorokin's work focused primarily on Western cultures, so further research needs to be done by others today on this question. As Sorokin himself concluded: Sorokin, , p. The systems of mentality of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, Sufism, early Christianity, and of many ascetic and mystical sects, groups, and movements i. Indeed, there are powerful forces of change sweeping the planet today.

In many ways, Eastern cultures represented especially by Asian countries are undergoing rapid economic development, technological growth, and increasing materialism as a result. This has led many thoughtful people to be concerned that the whole world is perhaps becoming Westernized and materialistic. But an equally strong counter current is also occurring within Western cultures today, where the achievement of a certain level of material comfort often leads people to seek other values in life, especially spiritual values, in an effort to find meaning.

Spiritual and religious movements of various kinds are thus having a comeback--especially in cultures and countries that have undergone the greatest degree of material development, i. This is no accident.

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Indeed, it can be argued that both Western and Eastern cultures, in their pure or extreme forms to the extent that they did actually at times represent one of Sorokin's two opposite cultural types , have traditionally both been out of balance, and that today, for the first time our increasingly interdependent world is providing the conditions for both Eastern and Western cultures to become more in balance, in terms of honoring both spiritual and material values, inner peace as well as outer peace values, and group as well as individualistic concerns and perspectives, and that this is indeed the most promising development occurring in the world today, in regard to creating the foundations for a global culture of peace--for both East and West--in the 21st century.

And indeed, we see that this is happening today. Crime and violence are on an increase everywhere. Fanatics of the left and right--including religious cults promoting violence in the name of God or spirit a total contradiction in terms --are multiplying. The transition period does not guarantee an easy ride.

CCHU Spirituality, religion and social change - HKU Department of Sociology

But change is inevitable, and it must be dealt with as constructively and consciously as possible, so that we can get through this transition period with as little real catastrophes and violence as possible. Sorokin's work suggests--at least based on his analysis of the alternations in Western cultures historically--that such balanced Idealistic periods usually lasted about years.

In non-Western cultures, Sorokin saw Confuscianism and much of Ancient Egyptian culture which lasted 3, years as good examples of the balanced, Ideational form. As Eastern and Western cultures increasingly come together and interact with each other, now and in the future, perhaps such a balanced period could last for a long time--drawing on both Eastern and Western cultural values for its maintenance and sustenance.

If that were to become possible, then the so-called "Golden Age" prophesied in various religious and spiritual traditions could indeed become a reality. This might be more likely if both Eastern and Western cultures could continue to develop in isolation from each other, but in our increasingly interdependent world, this seems unlikely. The more preferable, balanced scenario, however, would be for the East to increasingly develop economically--as it no doubt will do, with many economic observers having called the 21st century the "Pacific Century--while still maintaining and preserving its rich spiritual traditions and values, and for the West to increasingly further an interest in spiritual, inner peace questions, while still maintaining a decent materialistic lifestyle and concern with social justice issues in the outer world.

The transition period of getting there may indeed be rocky. But a peaceful world, based on attention paid to both inner peace and outer peace, including social justice questions, is indeed one possibility for the 21st century. At different times in history, and in different cultures, divinity or the sacred or spiritual has been represented in different ways: sometimes as nature spirits such as Shintoism in Japan, American Indian traditions, as well as other indigenous people's spiritual traditions, such as the Aborigines in Australia ; sometimes as goddesses, often associated with fertility and the earth seen in the ancient temples in Malta or the Old Europe documented by Marija Gimbutis ; sometimes as a balance between male and female gods and goddesses, each representing different aspects or attributes of the one God, as in Ancient Egypt and Hinduism ; and sometimes as a monotheistic, all powerful God who is often portrayed as God the Father or male in Western monotheistic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

There are a number of books that have been written in recent years--many by feminists who are trying to recapture the spiritual and societal role of women historically--about the factors leading to the above transition from female goddess to male God. There is not space here to explore this subject in greater depth.

The important point here is just to note that divinity has been portrayed and experienced differently, at different times in history and in different cultures. Underneath this diversity, however, was a common search for some kind of spiritual meaning in life--whatever the form that this took, which one could argue was at least partly a reflection of the dominant cultural values that existed at the time.

It is not the purpose of this paper to argue that one symbol system for spirit or divinity is correct and others are wrong. All sought to honor spirit in some way. If God or spirit is beyond all dualities, however--which the mystical traditions of all religions seem to suggest--then clearly God or spirit or divinity is also beyond our human attempts to categorize it as either all male, or all female, at the exclusion of the other.

As Lao Tsu said, "the Tao that can be named is not the Tao. One of the themes of this paper is that if we want to create peace in the world, then we need to find a way to include all the parts of the whole, or the world, in this process. It would thus seem in keeping with this theme that divinity or spirit should be seen to be the unity that transcends all opposites or dualities, however they are represented. In support of this idea, Figure 3 cites examples of spiritual symbols from a number of different religions in the world, which are all based on this idea of recognizing that the spiritual path involves balancing and transcending polar opposites, or dualities.

Indeed, the mystical or esoteric path in all religions is based on this simple truth: unitive consciousness transcends duality. Ancient Egyptian Ankh: Represents the unity of opposites, which are symbolized by the two halves of the Ankh: the top, circular part representing the female principle; the bottom straight part representing the male principle. The Ankh also symbolized eternal life and immortality with the balancing and transcending of opposites--represented by the male and female principles--being the way to get there , as well as the union of Upper and Lower Egypt the upper half representing the Delta region of Lower Egypt and the bottom half representing the rest of the Nile River that flowed through Upper Egypt, in the South, to the Delta in the North.

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Please Note: if the reader is aware of additional symbols, from different religious traditions, illustrating this idea of the unity of opposites, the writers would appreciate hearing from you about this. Thank you. Celtic Cross: The Celtic Cross is an interesting Christian cross in that it combines the traditional symbol of the cross representing Christ on the cross, who died to the physical life and was resurrected into eternal life with the Father--more a representation of the male principle with the circle around it representing the female principle.

Vesica Pisces Pre-Christian, Celtic Symbol : This pre-Christian, Celtic symbol also represents the unity outer circle of opposites--the two inner circles, which are also seen to be overlapping or interdependent. The area in the middle, where these two circles overlap, is also the shape of a fish, which later became one of the dominant symbols for Christianity.

This symbol can be found on the ancient well at Glastonbury, England, which some call the mythical "Isle of Avalon" of King Arthur legends. This well has provided healing waters at a constant temperature for 5, years, according to tradition.