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Shall he give it back to the bearer, or, once he is gone, throw it out of the window? A text translated into Portuguese did more than imitating the original style: it positively emulated it, thanks to the superior variety and elegance of Portuguese over other languages. A version ought to be like a faithful message, where an Ambassador must not change more than what his Sovereign ordered him. And those who employ many neologisms simply do it because they are ignorant!

Firstly, the original had become rare on the Portuguese market and was very expensive. Cicero, Vol. But unlike most of them, it was cheaper than imported manufactured goods and also cheaper than existing domestic alternatives!

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And the end in view was the nationalisation of the original French contents. Towards the end of this text, however, Pereira interpolates some original paragraphs in which he discusses his own criteria. Rephrasing is the true way to nationalising foreign literature. In this way translation is politically legitimated, as it replaces both an uncontrolled importation of foreign literature read in its original idiom, and the barbarization of Portuguese through useless and imperfect loans from other languages.

Public utility is in this way connected to patriotism, and translation is a patriotic deed. As an admired of Colbert, Forbonnais was in favour of the domestic production, consumption and exportation of luxuries, although he argued that a balanced development implied the contemporary promotion of agriculture and manufactures. This point can be easily verified by the contrastive analysis of the macrostructure and microstructure of Elementos offered in the remaining part of this section.

At the macrostructural level, table 2 shows that, with the exception of the paratextual components, the translation entirely follows the source text. Table 2. Traduzidos livremente do francez para o Nulla magis praesens fortuna laborum Portuguez. Nulla magis praesens fortuna laborum Chez Briasson, rue Saint Jacques. Parte I. Avertissement [3 pages without number] Ao ILL. MO e EX. Table des chapitres.

Much more than documents.

Chapitre I. Capitulo I. Capitulo II.

De la Concurrence. Capitulo III. Des Manufactures ou du travail Capitulo IV. Chapitre V.

Classicismo [Prof. Noslen]

Capitulo V. De la Navigation. Capitulo VI. Des Colonies.


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Chapitre VII. Capitulo VII. Des Assurances. Capitulo VIII. Du Change. Capitulo IX. Capitulo X. Capitulo XI. Du Luxe. Capitulo XII. De la Balance du Commerce. However, Pereira reorganised the whole by shifting chapters 5 and 6 from Part 1 to Part 2, maybe in an attempt to divide the subject in a more rational way. Comparing this text with the typical division in four parts of the treatises and textbooks of political economy in the 19 th century, we can observe that Pereira concentrated the preliminaries and the theory of production in Part 1, while he allocated to Part 2 the theory of circulation chapters 5 to 10 and the theory consumption ch.

This fact is suggested by the smaller number of pages of the translation, although the different layout can explain part of this difference. However, percentages reveal that the condensation was more or less effective depending on the subject.

Panegyrico de Luiz de Camões

A few examples of microstructural analysis can show how Pereira actually behaved in translating and adapting the source text. It may be useful to start from the conclusion of our analysis. Secondly, there are entire parts that are completely omitted. Omitted parts range from a few lines to entire paragraphs or groups of paragraphs and pages. Short omissions are very often justified by reasons of synthesis, and in a few cases by reasons of political prudence, or to adapt the text to the target national context.

Longer omissions are generally more strategical: either they aim at adapting the text to a Portuguese readership, for example by omitting historical descriptions referred to France, or they are again motivated by reasons of political prudence. Finally, truly paraphrastic manipulations are much more limited than one could expect.

The latter, in turn, are introduced either to make a comment, or, once again, to avoid problems with censorship and government. On the whole, condensation largely prevails on enlargement. But some stylistic changes seem to be justified to make the translation closer to the target language. The remaining parts of this passages are quite similar. For example, when listing the main sources of profitable trade with colonies, Pereira omits those articles that do not belong to the Portuguese trade with its own colonies In this case Pereira probably intended to avoid any problem with the Portuguese religious censorship.

This case is not isolated, and offers us the opportunity to introduce another case of paraphrastic approach.


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In chapter 1, Forbonnais describes the flourishing trade in the Low Countries in the 16 th century, when Philip II of Habsburg accessed to the throne. There is a last question concerning this translation that deserves some comments. The question is why he made such a mistake.

Meaning of "rependido" in the Portuguese dictionary

The first translation appeared in Brazil only in The historical outline contained in this chapter was clearly indebted to book XXI of Esprit. And the examples could be multiplied ad libitum. However it is perhaps too harsh at least for the contribution Pereira gave to the dissemination of political economy in Portugal in the 18 th century.


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As shown in this paper, this book was one of the few translations of economic works that appeared in Portugal in the 18th century. His use of the paraphrastic method was considered by him as part and parcel of a patriotic service he aimed to render to his fellow countrymen. It was the way in which he aimed at nationalising foreign literature. In the context of Portugal during the reign of D. Teresa Almeida, for her invaluable help in making available a considerable part of the printed materials on which this paper is based, and the archivists of the Arquivio Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, for their kind and expert advice during our research.

Usual disclaimers apply. Related Papers. By Marco Guidi. English mercantilist influences on the foundation of the Portuguese School of Commerce in According to the prototype of the medieval saint, the aesthetic practices of St. Rose of Lima reached paroxysm.

tapolachartua.tk Libros gratis. List of Authors / Lista de Autores - C

Hansen first highlights that during Lent, Rose fasted on bread and water. In another section, he indicates that when "Lent arrives, she stopped eating bread altogether, only eating orange seeds. She could spend eight days eating only the Eucharist Hansen, , p. Corporal penitences were equally severe. Even though he recommended moderation, her confessor allowed her to flagellate herself with lashes over a short period of a number of days, which is the same number that "Christ received for our sins in his Passion, according to what is piously believed" Hansen, , p.